News and Insights

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Attorney, Adam Buck spoke with ABC15 about the current legal issues surrounding the proposed changes to student loans.

August 2nd, 2017

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Performing due diligence before buying in an HOA community

An English proverb says: “measure twice, cut once.” This is an old carpenter’s way of saying you should perform adequate due diligence before taking action. This advice aptly applies to individuals looking to buy a home in an HOA community. Homeowner associations have been established through cooperation between the local municipalities and the real estate developers. Prior to the advent of HOAs, towns or cities would assess and collect property taxes from each homeowner and in exchange they would take care of the streets, parks, trash collection etc. Homeowners would also be bound by the provisions of the city’s code that regulate landscaping and the condition of the property.

In the 1960s real estate developers began to develop HOA communities. Since then HOA communities have exploded across the nation. Currently, more than 68 million Americans live in HOA communities – which is 53% of all households in the nation! In these types of communities, the Developer creates a non-profit corporation to manage the community and to take over many of the duties that were traditionally performed by cities. Before selling any homes, the Developer records Covenants, Conditions & Restrictions (CC&Rs). By purchasing a home in the community a person automatically becomes a member of the non-profit corporation and is automatically bound by the CC&Rs. The day-to-day operations of the HOA are run by the HOA Board of Directors. The HOA Board is made up of volunteers from the community.

HOAs have been given great power by state legislatures. Essentially, the HOA steps into the shoes of the city in many respects. For example, the HOA Board has the authority to collect monthly or quarterly assessments (i.e. taxes) and to regulate, penalize and fine homeowners for violating the CC&Rs and the other rules and regulations of the community. Because of its inherent power, the HOA will have a big impact, good or bad, on a homeowner’s life. But when buying a home, many people are so busy inspecting and performing their due diligence on the home itself, they spend little to no time conducting any due diligence on the HOA that will govern their life and the use of their property as long as they live in the community.

A wise buyer would spend some time making sure the community is a good fit for them before purchasing the home. There are three categories of recommended due diligence: 1) Community documents; 2) Financials; and 3) Litigation.

Community Documents
Prior to close of escrow a buyer receives a large stack of documents from the HOA which includes copies of the CC&Rs, Rules and Regulations, and Bylaws. These are often very lengthy and are filled with “legalese” so you may need an attorney to help you understand what you are getting into. For example, these documents indicate whether or not you can have a boat or an RV at your home, a basketball hoop or a swing set. They can even restrict what types of plants, trees or rocks you can have in your yard. They may require you to paint your house every so often or they may prevent you or your guests from parking on the street. You should become very familiar with the all the rules, requirements and restrictions in the community to make sure they are compatible with your lifestyle. If you violate any of these provisions, or if you fail to pay the dues and assessments, the Association my fine you and put a lien on your home. You should talk to members of the community to find out how the HOA Board interprets and enforces the rules and regulations of the community.

You should also review the financial information you receive from the HOA prior to close of escrow to understand the financial condition of the Association. The Association collects dues and assessments from its members and must budget and use those funds to take care of the common areas of the community. If you buy the home, you will be a member of the non-profit corporation that manages the community and you will benefit or be punished by how financially solvent the HOA is. For example, if you are looking to buy a home in a community with lots of amenities such as a clubhouse, swimming pools, tennis courts and parks, you want to make sure that the HOA has enough money in reserve to be able to repair and replace all of these things when they eventually wear out or break down. If not, the HOA would have to make a special assessment to cover these large expenses and each homeowner would have to pay their pro rata share, which could be quite large. Some communities pay a professional to prepare a formal Reserve Study. You should ask if the community has one. A Reserve Study evaluates the amenities and common areas and then recommends how much money the community should have in reserve to make sure it is able to repair and replace them over time. By reviewing the Reserve Study you can determine if the community has adequate funds in reserve. And if the community does not have a formal reserve study that says something about the community as well. Make sure you are comfortable with the financial condition of the Association before you purchase the home.

Finally, you should check the local court records to see how litigious the community is. However, not all lawsuits are bad. Sometimes an association must file a lawsuit to collected dues and assessments from a homeowner that is not paying his or her fair share of the community expenses. But if a community is overly litigious it can negatively impact the community and its members. For example, the more times the HOA is sued, the more it will pay for insurance. And the higher cost of insurance is then passed on to its members. Also, excessive litigation may indicate poor communication and dispute resolution skills within the community. Prolonged litigation can also cause significant division and discord within the community. All lawsuits are public records so you can access them for free. You can also ask questions of community members to better understand the dynamics in the community.

Buying a home in an HOA community is a big decision. People are often drawn to HOA communities because of the wonderful amenities they offer such as pools, tennis courts and parks. But they often fail to perform adequate due diligence to make sure that the personality and culture of the community fits their lifestyle. Prospective buyers can avoid a lot of stress, frustration and cost by simply taking the time to perform a little due diligence on the community before deciding to purchase the home.

June 21st, 2017

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(Scottsdale, Arizona) Radix Law announced that two of its attorneys, partner Adam Buck and associate Amanda Salvione, have been selected as presenters for a seminar during the 2017 State Bar of Arizona Convention.

The three-day conference, to be held June 14 through June 16 at the Westin La Paloma in Tucson, is an annual reunion of State Bar of Arizona Members and features dozens of seminars, meetings and special events on a wide variety of legal topics. The theme of this year’s convention is Our Bar – Serving and Protecting the Public.

On Thursday, June 15, Radix Law attorneys Buck and Salvione will be featured speakers during a seminar titled Advanced Issues in Land Use: Navigating the Dangers of Deed Restrictions in Residential and Commercial Development. 

The seminar is presented by Real Property Law Section, of which Salvione is a co-chair for the seminar and is on the Executive Council.

Specifically, Buck and Salvione will teach attendees about the recent changes in community association and deed restriction law, drafting considerations, hot issues in deed-restriction litigation and unexpected ways that deed restrictions can derail land use.

Buck is a Certified Real Estate Specialist with nearly two decades of transactional and litigation experience in Arizona and Nevada. As a partner with Radix Law, Buck focuses on laws pertaining to business, real estate, homeowners association (HOA), employment, and commercial litigation.

“It’s very exciting to collaborate with our peers and discuss issues we are passionate about,” said Buck. “We are honored to be asked to present at this seminar in Tucson with some of the top lawyers in the state.”

Amanda Salvione’s practice focuses on real estate, business formation and structuring and finance law.

“Adam and I are thrilled to represent Radix Law at the State Bar of Arizona Convention, and are looking forward to sharing what we’ve discovered through our work, but more so to learn from others and take that knowledge back to our clients and ultimately, our community,” said Salvione.

Formed in 2008, Radix Law attorneys serve companies, individuals and families throughout Arizona in business and corporate law and related areas, ranging from taxation and asset protection to bankruptcy and estate planning. The firm leads the Valley of the Sun in estate planning and trust administration law.

June 13th, 2017

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PHOENIX – The Frutkin Law Firm has become the first Arizona practice to take advantage of the state bar’s trade name rule. It announced it will rebrand as Radix Law on Jan. 1 2017.

There is a long tradition in the practice of law: the name of a firm includes the surnames of the most prominent partners. As law has become such a big business over the past decade, the largest practices in the world are names of partners who have long since passed away.

This tradition was also required by the Arizona Bar until recently. Now, firms can ditch the commas in favor of a more universal trade name.

Radix, in Latin, means “root.” It can mean the root of a tree, the root of knowledge or the root of a number. While the firm’s attorneys come from all over the world, they have decided to be rooted in Arizona.

“Our new name reflects our values,” says Principal Jonathan Frutkin. “We are a business law firm that helps our clients pursue opportunities and fights for them when challenged – and we are rooted right here in Arizona. It is also an acknowledgement that we have grown from being a solo legal practice into a business law firm with almost a dozen lawyers.”

The Frutkin Law Firm was formed in 2007 and now has 11 attorneys with decades of experience. They serve companies, individuals and families throughout Arizona in business and corporate law and related areas, ranging from taxation and asset protection to bankruptcy and estate planning. Radix Law leads the Valley of the Sun in estate planning and trust administration law. Radix Law’s attorneys are respected sources in their field and contribute to local and national media.

About Radix

Radix Law, formerly The Frutkin Law Firm, was founded in 2007 by attorney Jonathan Frutkin with the goal of providing exceptional legal representation to clients throughout Arizona in business and corporate law and related areas. Radix helps businesses, individuals, and families in Phoenix and throughout Arizona with their corporate and business law, bankruptcy, taxation, asset protection, wills, trusts, and estates, and litigation needs. The firm is located at the Kierland Commons in Scottsdale. For more information, visit

December 30th, 2016

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Short selling real estate is often complicated and time consuming. There are many moving parts and the deal can unravel for a variety of reasons. One hidden landmine in short sale transactions is the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”). FIRPTA requires that in real estate transactions where the seller is a foreign person (non-resident) the buyer must withhold 15% of the sales proceeds and pay it to the IRS. If the buyer fails to do so, the IRS can pursue the buyer for the seller’s tax liability. Although there are several exceptions to the tax withholding requirement, if none apply, the deal will fail. The most commonly used exception is the Certificate of Non-Foreign Status. As long as the seller represents that he or she is a U.S. resident, FIRPTA does not apply.  But if the seller is a foreign person the odds of the short sale falling apart increase exponentially. Why is that?

In a short sale transaction the bank approves the transaction based on it netting a certain amount of money. If the buyer withholds 15% of the sales price as required by law, the bank would receive much less than agreed. For example, if the house sold for $350,000, the buyer would be required to withhold $52,500 and pay it to the IRS. The reduced amount is generally unacceptable to the bank and the deal is rejected. Some sellers have even offered to pay the required FIRPTA withholding tax at close of escrow to make the short sale happen just to find out that the bank will not allow it. From the bank’s perspective, if the short selling property owner has access to that much additional cash, the bank should get it rather than the IRS and without bank approval the short sale will not happen.

There are two other potential exceptions that might allow the short sale to proceed. One is if the buyer intends to reside in the property for at least 50% of the time that the property will be in use during the first 24 months following closing and if the sales price is less than $300,000. If this is true, the transaction is exempt from the FIRPTA withholding requirements. But because many short sale buyers are investors this exemption is often unhelpful. The other exception is if the seller believes he or she will have no tax liability from the transaction, they may apply for a withholding certificate from the IRS which eliminates the FIRPTA tax withholding requirements. The IRS has 90 days to respond to the application and the short sale cannot close until the seller gets the certificate. But an additional 90 day delay can cause the buyer to walk away from the deal or it can cause the house to go to foreclosure.

So, prior to entering into a short sale transaction, it is important to know whether or not the seller is a U.S. resident. If not, the short sale will likely be more complicated, time consuming and difficult and there is a much greater chance that the deal will fall apart. It should be noted however, that even if the seller is a U.S. resident at the beginning of the transaction, his or her status may change before close of escrow. I am familiar with a short sale transaction where the seller had a green card and was a U.S. resident when the short sale started. But the transaction took over a year to complete and during this time period, the seller moved out of the United States and lost his green card. When it came time to close escrow he was unable to sign the Certificate of Non-Foreign Status and because none of the exceptions applied there was nothing that could be done to save the deal. No one had told the seller of the importance of maintaining his U.S. residency throughout the short sale process. He certainly did not think it would destroy his short sale transaction, but it did. The house went to foreclosure and the real estate agents that worked so diligently on the transaction for nearly a year did not get paid a dime. So, before you spend a significant amount of time on a short sale transaction, make sure you have thoroughly analyzed the requirements of FIRPTA and know how to step around this hidden landmine.

November 14th, 2016

Posted In: Uncategorized

“Sellers should disclose anything and everything they can think of,” says Adam Buck, a certified real estate specialist with the Frutkin Law Firm in Arizona. “Ironically, the more disclosures you make, the less important they might become to the buyer.

September 28th, 2016

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The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (the “Act” or “ADA”) was passed more than 25 years ago with the noble purpose of eliminating discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all facets of life. Title III of the Act specifically promotes equal access to public accommodations for individuals with disabilities. The term “public accommodations” is defined so broadly as to include just about any business that is open to the public. The purpose of the ADA is to make sure that individuals with disabilities feel as welcome in our businesses as those without disabilities. To facilitate this, the ADA has created Standards for Accessible Design which apply to all areas of the business premises; from entry ways and restrooms to water fountains and parking lots.

The ADA requires that all new construction comply with the Standards for Accessible Design. But the ADA can also apply to older buildings if compliance with the ADA would be “readily achievable” – meaning that compliance would not be overly expensive or unduly burdensome. However, what is “readily achievable” depends on the unique characteristic of each business.

The Act allows individuals who have been discriminated against to file a lawsuit to require compliance, seek monetary damages and to recover their attorney’s fees. Recently, there has been a spike in litigation in Arizona with respect to the accessibility provisions of the ADA. In fact, over the past year and a half, hundreds of ADA accessibility lawsuits have been filed against Arizona businesses. But all of these cases have been filed by only a small handful of Plaintiffs who often use the same law firms.

Many of these lawsuits have been filed against Arizona businesses for parking lot non-compliance issues. For example, the ADA requires that all business parking lots 1) contain the correct number of “accessible” parking spaces; 2) include van accessible parking; and 3) have signs with the international symbol for accessibility mounted in front of parking spaces.

Business owners have become frustrated that one or two disabled individuals, in connection with their attorneys, seem to be patrolling the state searching for businesses with any type of ADA violation. These individuals then file lawsuits in federal court before notifying the businesses of the violations. So, even if the businesses immediately agree to make the corrections, they must also pay the Plaintiffs’ attorney’s fees, which are often $5,000 or more per lawsuit, to get the cases dismissed.

This onslaught of litigation has had a polarizing effect on Arizona residents. Some believe that these repeat plaintiffs and their attorneys are using the Act to extort money from Arizona businesses for small and insignificant ADA violations. The other side says that the ADA has been around for over 25 years and if businesses are still not ADA compliant it is their own fault and litigation is the only reliable method to bring about the purposes of the Act, which is to make disabled individuals feel welcome in our businesses.

But regardless of which side of the debate you are on, every business should retain a qualified contractor or architect to conduct an ADA compliance analysis of the business premises and make any changes or corrections based on the issues identified. These lawsuits often target small businesses because they are less likely to proactively seek professional help to become ADA compliant and they are also more likely to settle quickly because they often do not have the resources to fund prolonged litigation.

However, ADA compliance should be about more than just risk management and staying out of litigation. Business owners should view ADA compliance as part of their efforts to provide exceptional customer service. It is estimated that there are 24.1 million people in the United States with a severe disability that requires the long-term use of assistive devices such as wheelchairs, crutches, and walkers and all of these people are consumers. Virtually every business in existence has customer service as one of its top priorities. And when a business has plenty of accessible parking, prominent signage and a wide path to the business entrance, it sends a strong message that individuals with disabilities are wanted and are valued as customers.

July 25th, 2016

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July 1st, 2016

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It is part of the American Dream to own a home. But along with home ownership comes the obligation to pay property taxes. The government collects property taxes to pay for, among other things, maintenance of roads, street lighting, community landscaping, parks and city code enforcement. But starting in approximately 1960, local governments began teaming up with private developers to create homeowner associations. Today, more than 66 million people in the United States live in homeowners associations, condominium communities, cooperatives and other planned communities and the number grows each year. By statute, state legislatures have given certain governmental powers to HOAs. A homeowners association operates much like a local city government. The community elects a board of directors to represent them. The Board then makes decisions for the community. The community is governed by Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions (CC&Rs) which allow the Board to collect dues and assessments. These dues and assessments are then used by the HOA to maintain roads, street lighting, community landscaping, parks and for CC&R enforcement. In a very real sense an HOA community is a localized form of government that collects taxes and is responsible for community maintenance.

So, in creating HOA communities, local governments have transferred the responsibility to maintain roads, street lighting, community landscaping, parks and code enforcement to the HOAs. But the government continues to collect property taxes from those in HOA communities at the same rate as those that don’t live in HOA communities. The proliferation of HOAs has resulted in a cost savings to local governments in two ways. First, by requiring developers to build “public improvements” such as parks and then passing the cost of maintenance of the improvements to the homeowners; and secondly, by HOAs being responsible for the cost of maintaining infrastructures that would normally be maintained by the municipality.

So, if homeowners in HOA communities already pay dues and assessments to their association for maintenance of roads, parks and other amenities, then why are they required to pay property taxes? Aren’t they getting taxed twice for the same services? That’s what many homeowners believe and their complaints have been heard at the Federal level. Two U.S. Congressional Representatives are co-sponsoring a bill to provide a special federal tax deduction for owners of property in homeowners associations. On March 3, 2016 U.S. Representatives Anna G. Eshoo (D-CA) and Mike Thompson (D-CA) introduced the bill “Helping our Middle-Income Earners (HOME) Act.” If passed, H.R. 4696 would allow homeowners in community associations who earn $115,000 or less in annual income to deduct up to $5,000 of their community association fees and assessments from their federal tax liability.

According to the sponsors, “[t]he HOME Act recognizes that millions of middle class homeowners are struggling to keep up with rising household expenses like child care, college tuition, health care, mortgage and community assessments” and the bill goes “a long way by providing relief from this tax burden on millions of middle class families.”

Although no companion bill has been introduced in the Senate, the bill has attracted the attention and has gained the support of the Community Association Institute, a national organization that advocates on behalf of HOA communities. “CAI applauds Rep. Eshoo for her efforts to make homeownership more affordable and for recognizing the inequity of double-taxation faced by homeowners in America’s community associations,” said CAI Chief Executive Officer Thomas M. Skiba, CAE. “We look forward to working with Reps. Eshoo and Thompson to ensure this legislation is a net gain for the more than 66 million Americans who live in community associations,” Skiba added.  The HOME Act would lighten the financial burden of homeowners and make homeownership more affordable and attainable for more families.

There is no denying that there is some taxation inequity for homeowners living in HOA communities. But H.R. 4696 still has a long way to go. It was recently referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means and only time will tell if the bill will gain enough support to pass. But there are over 66 million hard-working homeowners that are hoping it gets traction.

March 30th, 2016

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It’s anyone’s worst nightmare (except possibly Kim Kardashian’s) – waking up one day to discover nude photos of yourself posted all over the internet accessible by millions of people world-wide. With just the click of a mouse, your most personal and private photos or videos are accessible to your friends, family, neighbors, co-workers and boss. And making it worse, the images were posted along with your name, address, employer and links to your social media profiles. You then learn that the images were posted by a former boyfriend or girlfriend.  Unfortunately, this situation is becoming more and more common and as you can imagine, the damage to the victim can be devastating. Victims often face strains to personal relationships when family and friends view or receive the images. They may lose out on a job opportunity when the prospective employer researches them online. Sadly, one study showed that approximately half of revenge porn victims consider suicide due to the negative repercussions of the postings.

But what can be done? Certainly, revenge porn victims could file civil lawsuits against the ex-boyfriend or girlfriend who posted the photos. But civil litigation can cost tens of thousands of dollars and if the victim cannot afford to litigate, the jilted lover gets away with the reprehensible conduct. Also, the civil lawsuit would only produce a paper judgment that says the defendant owes the victim money. Collecting a significant amount of money from the defendant would be very difficult. But most importantly, real justice can’t be achieved with a money judgment or an injunction. The images are on the internet and they are virtually impossible to remove entirely – you can’t unring the bell.

So, many states, including Arizona, are looking to criminalize revenge porn. Criminalizing revenge porn would give victims a greater chance of getting justice. Criminal laws also come with harsh penalties, including imprisonment, which can be effective in deterring people from posting the photos online in the first place. This is obviously the best possible outcome. To address this problem, Rep. J.D. Mesnard, R-Chandler recently introduced House Bill 2001 which would criminalize the distribution of nude or sexual photos or videos without the person’s consent.

H.B. 2001 has been three years in the making. The first revenge porn bill introduced by Mesnard was passed into law in 2014 but was quickly challenged by the ACLU and other groups including book publishers, photographers and bookstore owners as being unconstitutional because it was broadly worded and had the potential to infringe on First Amendment free speech rights. Rather than fighting the issue in court, the State agreed to revise and narrow the language of the bill to address the ACLU’s concerns.

The revised bill requires that the person in the image have a reasonable expectation of privacy and that the distribution be made with the intent to harm, harass, intimidate, threaten or coerce. The bill makes revenge porn a Class 5 felony which carries a 1.5 year to 2.5 year imprisonment term. It also makes it a Class 1 misdemeanor to threaten to disclose the images, even if the images are never disclosed. A Class 1 misdemeanor carries a maximum 6 month prison term.

These changes seemed to satisfy the ACLU and the other opponents of the prior bill and the revised bill was introduced last year. The House passed it but it died on the last night of the Legislative session when the Senate adjourned before taking any action on it. Undeterred, Mesnard recently re-introduced the bill this legislative session as House Bill 2001. The Legislature made it a priority and the bill quickly and easily passed the House and the Senate and has been sent to Governor Doug Ducey to sign. H.B. 2001 contains an emergency provision so if it is signed by Gov. Ducey, the law would immediately go into effect.

As technology advances, it become easier and easier to take and share photos and videos. So, eliminating revenge porn altogether will be extremely difficult. But if the conduct is criminalized, the laws are actively enforced and judges hand down aggressive sentences, we have a much better chance of preventing people from being victimized.

March 10th, 2016

Posted In: Uncategorized

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